Ways of Referencing Guide

This handout shows different ways of referencing in an essay (Harvard Style).

Indirect referencing (no citation – no quotation marks)

Smith (1980) argues that…

It has been suggested that… (Brown, 2006)

As King (2003) observes…

Research carried out by Johnson et al (1999) indicates that…

Direct referencing (when including a citation)

A study by Brown found that ‘…….’ (2005, p67) Baker and Greene’s finding indicate that ‘……’ (2009, p112)

Johnson et al argue that (1995, p101) An alternative style format to (2005, p67) is (2005:67).

Whichever format you choose to use, be sure to stay consistent throughout your text.

Longer Direct Referencing

Note: where a citation is longer than 2 and a half lines, a ‘drop down’ citation is needed. It should be indented, single spaced and does not require quotation marks.


This idea is supported in the following quote: Gravitation cannot be held responsible for people falling in love. How on earth can you explain in terms of chemistry and physics so important a biological phenomenon as first love? Put your hand on a stove for a minute and it seems like an hour. Sit with that special girl for an hour and it seems like a minute. That’s relativity.

(Einstein 1948, p23)